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Namhansanseong and catholism

1. The historic identity of the martyrdom in Diocese of Suwon and Namhansanseong martyrs' shrine

The establishment of 'Diocese of Suwon (水原敎區)' originated from the affirmative answer for the catholics' demand in Suwon, it accords with the idea of the 2nd Vatican Council. From the beginning of the Diocese until to this days, such beliefs and wills for succeeding the martyrdom of numerous martyrs and for following the acts of witnesses are the basis of the pastrol works in Diocese of Suwon. The spirit of martyrs who had been died for Jesus Christ at Namhan Mountain Fortress, Namhansanseong (南漢山城), has become the foundation of organizing and spreading the catholic communities, from the beginning of the Korean Catholic Church, through the reconstruction of church in the age of persecution, until to the early Age of religious freedom. Owing to the blood of martyrs, the beliefs of the martyrs' at Namhansanseong has brought up the willings for founding and spreading the Korean Catholic Church. The willings originated from the shrine of Yanggeun (楊根), Cheonjinam (天眞菴), Dannae (丹川), Eonong (於農), and they spread to the shrine of Sowon, Jooksan (竹山), Namyang (南陽) and the other districts, and finally led the organizing the catholic villages (敎友村), secondary stations (公所) and parishes (本堂) in such villages as Eunee (隱里), Golbaemasil, Handeoggol (閑德洞), Gusan (龜山), Soorisan (修理山), Sonkol, Booeonggol etc. Therefore Namhansanseug martyrs' shrine will accomplish the role of mental support for catholic communities in Diocese of Suwon in the 21st century.

Jeong Jong-deok: Research Journal of Catholic Church History, Suwon Research Institute of Catholic History, 2004, pp.61-131
The author is a chief representative of Suwon Research Institute of Catholic History

2. A study of "Namhan Mountain Fortress, Namhansanseong (南漢山城) and the spread of Catholicism" in asprct of historical geography (Abstract)

Namhan Mountain Fortress, Namhansanseong was one of the four rear city of the capital Hanseong (漢城) and the safety zone during the war (戰時保障處). There are vary multitude offices for Yusu (留守) the local governor, Junggun (中軍) the training commander, Pangwan (判官) the executor etc. In the book Yeojidoseo (輿地圖書), there are the temporary palace called Haenggung (行宮) of about 231 kans (間), the royal shrine called Jwajeon (左殿) of 29 kans, the altar of the Haenggung called Woosil (右室) of 4 kans, the various warehouses of 924 kans, the guest house called Inhwagwan (人和舘) of 36 kans, the offices called Gwana (官衙) of 123 kans, the office for advising the local governor called Hyangcheong (鄕廳) of 16 kans. As well as these, there are also the office kitchen called Jusa (廚舍) of 11 kans, the office Jagcheong (作廳) of 27 kans, the office for arms called Gunkicheong (軍器廳) of 12 kans, the office Gwancheong (官廳) of 11 kans, the belfry called Jonggak (鐘閣) of 6 kans, the prison of 21 kans. Jwaseungdang (坐勝堂) Hall is located at the left side of the wall of Haenggung, and constructed by the local governor Shim, Sang-gyoo in 1817 due to sorry feelings for the king. The office Sueoyeong (守禦營) for training and commanding soldiers, called Yeonmugwan (鍊武館) or Yeonbyeonggwan (鍊兵舘) is located in the center of the fortress, below the north mountain. Ia (貳衙) the office for Pangwan was the second class as compared with the first class Sanyeong (上營) for Yusu, and located beside the Haenggung. Jeseungheon (制勝軒) was private residence for Pangwan. It can be assumed that the two small cabins beside the Yeonmugwan were the prisons divided by sex. And it can be assumed that the great hall located in the right of Yeonmugwan was the Gunroicheong (軍牢廳) the main center for Pangwan or for Junggun interrogating and torturing the prisoners including the catholics. Meanwhile the parking now between the Catholic church and Yeonmugwan is seemed to have been the large market place, and sometimes used to executing ground. Beside the stream toward the southeastern from the present rotary, there was the office Podogoonkwancheong (捕盜軍官廳) for capturing catholics as well as thives.

Choi Wan-gi: Suwon Research Journal of Catholic Church History, 2004, pp.17-60.
The author is a Professor at Ewha Womans University.

3. The execution ground of martyrs' in Namhan Mountain Fortress, Namhansanseong and the death of catholics

Of the martyrs at Namhan Mountain Fortress, Namhansanseong, Thomas Han Deog-oon (韓德運) was died a martyr by beheading (斬首刑), Augustinus Seo Tae-soon (徐泰淳) and Lee Jo-yeo (Jong-yeo, 李祖汝) by clubbing (杖殺刑), Paulus Jeong-eun (鄭溵) and Petrus Jeong (鄭) by choking with durable papers (白紙死刑). And Augustinus Kim Man-jip (金萬集) was died a martyr from disease in the prison, Andreas Oh (吳) and John Lee (李) from Namgwangri Joogsan (竹山) by hanging (絞首刑). And the other martyrs who died by unknown method are also seems to have been died for their catholic belief due to torturing, clubbing, hanging, choking with durable papers and disease from torturing. It seems that the executing ground where Thomas Han Deog-oon died by beheading was the even grass field located below the hill, beside the water mill, outer the east gate of Namhan Mountain Fortress, Namhansanseong. I think that the prison site where many catholics died martyrs was the spot where the stone mark is located within the present rotary parking, that the site where such catholics died during being tortured, clubbed, choked with papers was the site of Junggun's (中軍) court of law and Pangwan's (判官). Until now in general, developing the martyrs' shrine has been accomplished mainly in 'the site of beheading (斬首址)' due to traditional thought that the martyrdom by beheading is the most honorable. But it has nothing to do with the method of dying mainly due to persecutor's purpose or to political circumstances. Therefore we know that the martyr's belief is not accord with the way of executing.

Seo Jong-tae: Research Journal of Catholic Church History, Suwon Research Institute of Catholic History, 2004, pp.273-297.
The author is a chief researcher of Research Institute of church History in Korea.

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