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The Current Situation and Outlook of the Liturgies Held in Shrine Sungryeoljeon and Shrine Hyeonjeol

The Current Situation and Outlook of the Liturgies Held in Shrine Sungryeoljeon and Shrine Hyeonjeolsa(Confucianism) in Namhansanseong (Yun Yeo-bin, Institute of Gyeonggi Studies, GyeongGi Cultural Foundation)

Ⅰ. Characteristics of the Liturgies

Namhansanseong is the only place where Jwajeon which keeps the Jongmyo shrine, the tomb of the previous kings and a memorial hall honoring distinguished scholars are all located. Shrine Sungryeoljeon and Shrine Hyeonjeolsa symbolize Namhansanseong's origin and history and their liturgies1 are historically important because the king himself led the rites. According to the five principles of official ceremonies, liturgies are divided into large-scale, medium-scale and small-scale ones. For example, in Shrine Sungryeoljeon, medium-scale liturgies were held to honor ancestors and in Shrine Hyeonjeolsa, small-scale liturgies took place to pray for everyday needs. The liturgies held in these two halls were not only different in their scales but also in their characteristics. Shrine Sungryeoljeon kept ancestral tablets so the rites were designed to commemorate the ancestors. In contrast, Shrine Hyeonjeolsa which honored distinguished scholars held rites to honor their academic accomplishments and to inherit their tradition. Despite their differences in size and characteristics, what the liturgies of Shrine Sungryeoljeon and Hyeonjeolsa have in common is that they are related to the Manchu Invasion of 1636 and that they are the country's important liturgies. It is true that liturgies were important ways to express the royal power during the Joseon Dynasty but it was rare for the government to send the king's delegates to hold seopsaeui2 and to give hyangchuk3 and liturgy materials to a governer so that he can conduct chije4. Such rare examples are Shrine Sungryeoljeon and Hyeonjeolsa and this means that these halls were considered very important by the government.

Ⅱ. The Ligurgy Held in Shrine Sungryeoljeon

Shrine Sungryeoljeon is a hall that keeps the ancestral table of King Onjo, the first king of the kingdom of Baekje. Its address is 717 Sanseong-ri, Jungbu-myeon, Gwangju City, Korea and it is located under Mt. Iljang in the southwestern part of Namhansanseong. It was designated as Gyeonggi Province's Tangible Cultural Heritage No. 2 on May 4, 1972 and its liturgy, as Gwangju City's Intangible Cultural Heritage No.1 on April 21, 2008. In 1429 (the 11th year of King Sejong), the shrine of King Onjo of Baekje was built and the liturgy became the country's official ceremony. Since then, the liturgy has been held in spring and fall, using hyangchuk5. After the hall was burnt down during the Japanese Invasion in 1597, Yu Geun, a government official of Chungcheong Province, reconstructed the memorial hall honoring King Onjo in Jiksan in 1603 (The 36th year of King Seonjo)6. Today's shrine of King Onjo in Namhansanseong would probably have been built during the reign of King Injo since The Annals of King Injo, a historical document that was written in that era, describes the construction process in detail7. The liturgy held in Shrine Sungryeoljeon included eight bowls and eight kinds of nuts, following the rules of a medium-scale liturgy and basic dishes haven't been changed for a long time. A government official prepares the food used for the liturgy. The following is the table arrangement for the king's liturgy.

Ⅲ. The Liturgy Held in Shrine Hyeonjeolsa

Shrine Hyeonjeolsa is considered sacred by Koreans because it commemorates and honors Hong Ik-han, Yun Jip and Oh Dal-jae who were tortured and executed in Shenyang after refusing to surrender themselves to Qing during the Manchu Invasion of 1636. Later on, Kim Sang-heon, chief of the Cheokhwapa (those who argued against making peace with Qing) and Jeong Won also came to be honored. Since this hall was built to encourage the citizens to take lessons from their loyal ancestors, the government paid the entire cost of the liturgies held in spring and fall. When Heungseon Daewongun (1820~1898) eliminated the nationwide memorial halls in 1871 (the 8th year of King Gojong) to leave only 47 of them, Hyeonjeolsa remained in its place and it is still there today8. The address of Hyeonjeolsa is 310-1 Sanseong-ri, Jungbu-myeon, Gwangju city and it is located on the foot of a mountain near Namhansanseong's east gate. The hall was designated as Gyeonggi Province's Tangible Cultural Heritage No. 4 on May 4, 1972 and its liturgy, as Gwangju City's Intangible Cultural Heritage No.2 on April 21, 2008. Despite the Japanese colonial period, modernization and the Korean War, Hyeonjeolsa's authoritative and formal liturgy has been well preserved. Today, the liturgy is held each fall (at 11 a.m. on September 10 of the lunar calendar) to honor the ancestors' loyalty. In addition, the chief of the hall leads an incense rite takes place on the 1st and 15th days of each lunar month. The liturgy held in Shrine Hyeonjeolsa doesn't follow the rule of a small-scale liturgy which requires "four bowls and four plates" or "two bowls and two plates" and it applies the rule of "eight bowls and eight plates," based on the standard of local Confucian shrines. The basic food used for the liturgy hasn't been changed and the food is prepared by the chief of the hall.

1) A liturgy refers to a regular rite related to the country's ups and downs. During the Joseon Dynasty, this term encompassed the country's law (from the Gyeonggukdaejon Code) and customs. Since Sungryeoljeon and Hyeonjeolsa held very different rites, the term "liturgy" is used in this paper instead of "rite," "service" or "religious ceremony."
2) Seopsaeui is a rite that a government delegate leads on behalf of the king. 3)Hyangchuk is incense and a written prayer used for national rites.
4)Chije is a rite using rite materials and written prayer sent by the king.
5)An article from Sejongsillokjiriji, annals of King Sejong (July 4, 1429), Jiksan-hyeon Cheongju-mok Chungcheong Province“百濟始祖溫祚王廟 在縣東北間五里, 今上十一年己酉七月, 始立廟, 春秋傳香祝致祭.”
6)An article from Seonjosujeongsillok, annals of King Seonjo (June 1, 1603)
7)An article that was written on August 9, 1779 (the 3rd year of King Jeongjo). Kim Sang-cheol, a government official, told King Jeongjo that King Onjo had appeared in King Injo's dream to help him defeat the enemies and to make him build a shrine honoring King Onjo to hold rites in spring and fall.
8)An article that was written on March 20, 1871 (the 8th year of King Gojong).

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