The main gates are used for entering and exiting the fortress. Their number depends on the topography upon which the fortress is built, but most compounds have one in each of the four cardinal directions. At Namhan Mountain Fortress, the East Gate (or Left-wing Gate 左翼門) and the South Gate are the most frequently used entranceways. The North Gate (or Total Victory Gate 全勝門) was built in 1624, and the West Gate (or Right-wing Gate 右翼門) was where King Injo and his Crown Prince left the fortress to surrender to the Qing army on the 30th day of the 1st moon in 1637.
Dongmun (Eastgate, Jwaikmun)
Dongmun (East Gate) is located on the southeast section of the fortress and along with Namhan (South gate) it was most frequently used. In 1779, all the gates underwent repair, and this gate was called "left Side Gate" since it was on the left when facing south from the secondary palace. Situated on relatively low land, it featured stairs, making it impossible for horse-drawn wagons to enter. Goods were delivered through the Ammun no. 11 (Hidden gate) to the south of Summun(water gate).
Seomun (Westgate, Wuikmun)
It appears that Seomun (West gate) was part of the original fortress and it was restored in 1799, and renamed "Right Side Gate" since it was on the right when facing south from the secondary palace. In 1637, King Injo and the Crown Prince went through this gate to surrender to the Manchus. The slope on the west side of the fortress was too steep for provisions to come through, but those were easily sent through from Gwangnaru or Songpanaru ferry landings.
Nammun (Southgate, Jihwamun)
Nammun (Southgate) was the grandest and most important one out of four main gates at Namhansanseong (Namhan Mountain Fortress) and it is still the most used for entry. From prior records, it appears that the gate existed before King Injo had the fortress built in 1624. It was restored in 1779. King Injo entered the fortress through this gate when taking refuge from the Manchu invasion of 1636.
Bukmun (Northgate, Jeonseungmun)
Bukmun (Northgate) was used to launch attacks from the fortress during the Manchu siege. According to the record, 300 soldiers went through the gate to attack the Manchus but fell into a trap and were annihilated in the greatest fight and loss of troops during the siege. During the rebuilding of 1779, the gate was renamed Jeonseungmun or "Battle Victory Gate" with the meaning to never forget the loss. The gate is thought to have been built in 1624.